Vitamin E is essential to the normal functioning of the human body. It plays a central role in your immune system and functions as an antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals that damage cells at the genetic level.
Vitamin E can be found in vegetable oils, eggs, meat, poultry, cereals, fruits, and vegetables.
Although you can usually get all the vitamin E you need from a balanced diet. Vitamin E deficiency is considered rare in the developed world, except in premature babies with low birth weight or in people with rare genetic disorders such as abetalipoproteinemia or ataxia with vitamin E deficiency.
You might also develop a deficiency if you have a malabsorption disorder such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis in which vitamin E is less readily absorbed in the intestines.
As an antioxidant, vitamin E is often touted for its ability to fight oxidative stress that damages cells over the course of years and decades. The same effects are believed to slow the aging process when applied to the skin in a topical ointment or cream.
Some of these health claims are better supported by research than others.
Vitamin E is commonly prescribed in late pregnancy to reduce the risk of preeclampsia, a potentially devastating complication caused by a sudden rise in blood pressure.
Outside of pregnancy, vitamin E is sometimes used to treat premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking 400 milligrams (mg) two days before and three days after menstruation may help reduce the severity of PMS symptoms
There is also evidence that vitamin E supplements can reduce the frequency and/or severity of dysmenorrhea (painful periods) and menopausal hot flashes.
Nervous System Disorders
Vitamin E aids in the transmission of electrical signals between nerve cells (neurons) of the brain and body. Because of this, vitamin E is believed by some to aid in the treatment of nervous system disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. The evidence supporting these claims remains mixed at best.
The same applies to epilepsy or neurological motor disorders like Parkinson’s disease or Huntington’s disease.
The one area where vitamin E supplements may be beneficial is in the treatment of ataxia, an inherited movement disorder associated with severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplements are a standard part of treatment and have been shown to improve mobility in some.
Vitamin E may also prove useful in preventing drug-induced peripheral neuropathy. There is some evidence that vitamin E supplements can slow the destruction of the insulated coating of nerve cells, known as myelin, caused by prolonged exposure to certain drugs, including HIV antiretrovirals or chemotherapy agents like cisplatin.
Vitamin E is integral to eye health, aiding in the self-repair of the retina, cornea, and uvea (the pigmented portion of the eye). By way of example, a 2015 review of studies published in Public Health Nutrition concluded that a vitamin E supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of aging-related cataracts.
Similarly, vitamin E supplements appear to improve vision loss in people with uveitis, although it has little to no effect on the inflammation of the uvea itself.
Vitamin E supplements have also proven beneficial in treating an eye disorder in newborns known as retinopathy of prematurity. On the flip side, excessively high doses of vitamin E seems to accelerate the rate of vision loss in people with retinitis pigmentosa.
Liver or Kidney Disease
Vitamin E can neither treat nor prevent liver disease but may help slow its progression.
Supplements are typically prescribed to adults and children on dialysis to improve their response of erythropoietin, a drug used to stimulate red blood cells.
Similarly, it appears to improve kidney function in children with an inherited kidney disorder known as glomerulosclerosis.
Heart Disease and Cancer
The long-held belief that vitamin E can reduce the risk of heart disease or cancer remains largely unproven.
If anything, high doses of vitamin E (400 IUs or higher) was associated with a slightly reduced lifespan compared to a placebo. This may be due to the increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke which some scientists believe is linked to vitamin E supplementation.
By contrast, the long-term use of a daily vitamin E supplement may reduce the risk of bladder cancer.
Vitamin E is aggressively marketed by cosmetic manufacturers as an “anti-aging” compound. Most current evidence has shown that claims like this are overkill.
Others, meanwhile, have suggested that vitamin E can aid in scar healing by hydrating the skin, inhibiting collagen production, and reducing inflammation that can lead to tissue damage.
A study published in Dermatologic Surgery has largely debunked these claims, asserting that vitamin E did nothing to reduce the appearance of scars. What’s more, 33 percent of people who used it developed an allergic skin reaction known as contact dermatitis.
Despite these shortcomings, there is evidence that applying vitamin C to the skin may help clear up sores associated with granuloma annulare.
Possible Side Effects
Vitamin E supplements rarely cause any harm if taken at the recommended daily dose. The same cannot be said if vitamin E is taken in doses greater than 300 international units (IUs) per day.
Even doses lower than this can trigger side effects like nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea.
Vitamin E can slow blood clotting and may need to be avoided in people taking blood thinners like Coumadin (warfarin) or Plavix (clopidogrel). For this same reason, you should stop taking vitamin E two weeks before surgery to prevent excessive bleeding.
Vitamin E supplements should also be avoided in people with a history of heart attacks, stroke, bleeding disorders, or head and neck cancers.
In addition to blood thinners, vitamin E supplements may interact with certain medications, including the immune suppressive drug Sandimmune(cyclosporine), certain chemotherapy drugs, statin drugs like Lipitor(atorvastatin), antihistamines like Allegra (fexofenadine), and sedatives like Halcion (triazolam).
Vitamin E supplements are presumed to be safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Dosage and Preparation
When used as a daily supplement, a 15-mg dose is considered safe and effective. When used to treat a diagnosed deficiency, the dose may be increased to between 60 and 75 mg per day. Anything above this threshold should be approached with caution, ideally under the supervision of a doctor and for short-term treatment only.
Vitamin E supplements are most commonly sold as soft gel caps. There are two types typically found on market shelves: D-alpha-tocopherol natural way form and Dl-alpha-tocopherol synthetic way form . Both work similarly, but nearly twice as much Dl-alpha-tocopherol is needed to achieve the same blood concentration. Mixed tocopherols are also available.
There are simple formulas you can use to ensure you remain well within the recommended daily dose of vitamin E:
- To calculate the milligram dose of D-alpha-tocopherol, multiply the IUs by 0.67. Based on this formula, 25 IUs equal 16.75 mg.
- To calculate the milligram dose of Dl-alpha-tocopherol, multiply the IUs by 0.43. Based on this formula, 50 IUs equal 21.5 mg.
Which foods are highest in vitamin E?
Generally speaking, it is always best to get your vitamins from food rather than pills. Even if you have a diagnosed deficiency, you can benefit from increasing your dietary intake with vitamin-E-rich foods like:
- Almonds: 7.4 mg per one-ounce serving (or 49 percent of your daily value)
- Avocados: 4.2 mg per avocado (or 28 percent of your daily value)
- Trout: 4 mg per average trout (or 26 percent of your daily value)
- Butternut squash: 2.6 mg per one-cup serving (or 18 percent of your daily value)
- Kiwi fruit: 2.6 mg per one-cup serving (or 18 percent of your daily value)
- Broccoli: 2.3 mg per one-cup serving (or 15 percent of your daily value)